Disciplinary techniques are just one aspect of parent-child relationships. There are many other dimensions of parents’ behavior that influence the child’s personality . Each parent has a distinct parenting style. Some parents are loving and affectionate while some are hostile and rejecting and yet others, indifferent. Some parents are firm about the rules, some are lax and others are strict about them. There are many other aspects of parental behavior. By and large, the parenting style adopted by parent is fairly stable over time and across situations. But this does not mean that the parent is inflexible. A parent who is usually strict about enforcing rules may in cases, allow the child considerable flexibility. The style of parenting has a long-lasting effect on the child’s personality. Therefore, parents need to decide very carefully which parenting style they would like to adopt. We will group parents into four broad categories and see how each style influence the child’s personality.
1. Firm and Affectionate Parenting (Authoritative Parenting):
These Parents are warm, loving and supportive of the child’s efforts and accomplishments. They often praise the child. They show enthusiasm in the child’s activities, respond sensitively to her feelings and show empathy and compassion. They usually put the child’s need over their own. they understand their child’s personality characteristics and points of view. Such parents are firm in disciplining. They lay down some simple rules and make it clear to the child that these have to be obeyed and what may be the consequences of disobeying. At the same time, they explain the reasons for the rules. In other words, they limit the child’s behavior but within these limit they encourage independence. They allow enough flexibility for the child to act independently within the rules.
2. Rigid and Inflexible Parenting (Authoritarian Parenting):
The foremost characteristics of these parents is that these parents is that they use very little reasoning to discipline the child. Rather, they use power-oriented techniques to inculcate desirable social behavior. They view themselves as those who are in authority. They set the rules and demand that the children obey them unquestioningly. They are rigid about the rules they have set. They do not communicate the reason for the rules. It has been seen that children belonging to such families are generally disconnected, distrustful and withdrawn. They may also have difficulty in forming relations with the peers and do not get along well with them. Since the children are seldom encouraged to try out, they have a lower self-esteem compared to other children.
3. Permissive Parenting:
Theses parents lacks in disciplining. They give children all the freedom to do as they want. There are almost no rules for children and the parents so not expect much from them. In fact, children tend to make their own rules. Parents rarely demands that the child behave in a mature manner. Children in these families have the freedom to do as they want and have few responsibilities. Parents express their warmth and love to the children liberally. Children of such parents have been found to be the least mature or self-reliant. They are not likely to take responsibility and may be immature in their behavior with peers. They are not independent and they show high levels of aggression, sine the parents do not make efforts to control the child’s aggression.
4. Neglect in Parenting (Uninvolved):
These parents who neglect their child. They are not interested in their children and do not bother about them. They do not show much warmth and love. they do not control the child’s behavior or expect mature behavior. This sort of parenting style is associated with the most negative influence on children’s personality. Children of such parents show disturbance in their relationship with peers, both in childhood and adulthood.